Understanding What We’re Dealing With: Jung on the Antichrist Archetype

Sue Mehrtens is the author of this and all the other blog essays on this site. The opinions expressed in these essays are her own and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of other Jungian Center faculty or Board members.  Honesty, as well as professional courtesy, require that you give proper attribution to the author if you post this essay elsewhere.



 Understanding What We Are Dealing With: Jung on the Antichrist Archetype

“Archetypes … are, living psychic forces that demand to be taken seriously, and they have a strange way of making sure of their effect. Always they were the bringers of protection and salvation, and their violation has as its consequence the ‘perils of the soul’ known to us from the psychology of primitives…. If we cannot deny the archetypes or otherwise neutralize them, we are confronted, at every new stage in the differentiation of consciousness to which civilization attains, with the task of finding a new interpretation appropriate to this stage, in order to connect the life of the past that still exists in us with the life of the present,… If this link-up does not take place, a kind of rootless consciousness comes into being…which succumbs helplessly to all manner of suggestions and, in practice, is susceptible to psychic epidemics.”

Jung (1949)[1]


“The archetype is ‘that which is believed always, everywhere, and by everybody,’ and if it is not recognized consciously, then it appears from behind in its ‘wrathful’ form, as the dark ‘son of chaos,’ the evil-doer, as Antichrist instead of Savior–a fact which is all too clearly demonstrated by contemporary history.”

Jung (1940)[2]


“On the basis of a belief that had existed quite early, the expectation grew up that the light manifestation would be followed by an equally dark one, and Christ by an Antichrist.”

Jung (1952)[3]


“The astrological sign of Pisces consists of two fishes which were frequently regarded as moving in opposite directions. Traditionally, the reign of Christ corresponds to the first fish and ended with the first millennium, whereas the second fish coincides with the reign of Antichrist, now nearing its end with the entry of the vernal equinox into the sign of Aquarius.”

Jung (1954)[4]


“Our blight is ideologies–they are the long-expected Antichrist! National socialism comes as near to being a religious movement since A.D. 622. Communism claims to paradise come to earth again. We are far better protected against failing crops, inundations, epidemics, and invasions from the Turk than we are against our own deplorable spiritual inferiority, which seems to have little resistance to psychic epidemics.”

Jung (1939)[5]


“There is only one certainty–nothing can put out the light within.”

Jung (1940)[6]

The idea for this essay arose in the aftermath of a talk I gave recently, during which a member of the audience expressed surprise at my use of the word “Antichrist.” Like many people in the Western world, this woman associated the term “Antichrist” with the Biblical book in which the Antichrist replaces Christ as ruler of the world in the “end time.”[7] But, as the quotes above indicate, Jung had a much broader sense of this term. In this essay we will consider Jung’s definition of this important archetype and then set it in the context of our time. In a final section we will mine Jung’s work for his suggestions on how to cope with the challenges–personal and collective–presented by Antichrist.


There are two key terms that we must define here: “archetype” and “Antichrist.” In an essay archived on the Jungian Center Web site[8] I define archetype. I shall offer an abbreviated definition here. In his early work as a psychiatrist dealing with schizophrenics, Jung got

“… the idea of an unconscious not consisting only of originally conscious contents that have got lost, but having a deeper layer of the same universal character as the mythological motifs which typified human fantasy in general. These motifs are not invented so much as discovered; they are typical forms that appear spontaneously all over the world, independently of tradition, in myths, fairy-tales, fantasies, dreams, visions, and the delusional systems of the insane. On closer investigation they prove to be typical attitudes, modes of action–thought-processes and impulses which must be regarded as constituting the instinctive behavior of the human species. The term I chose for this, namely ‘archetype,’ therefore coincides with the biological concept of the ‘pattern of behavior.’ In no sense is it a question of inherited ideas, but of inherited, instinctive impulses and forms that can be observed in all living creatures.”[9]

Not only human beings manifest archetypes: Ethologists have observed them in monkeys and baboons, fish and other species.[10]

These observations led Jung and dozens of other scientists to recognize that archetypes–these “patterns of behavior”–have polarity, intent, generativity and numinosity. What do these terms mean?

All archetypes have polarity, two sides or poles: a positive manifestation and a negative.[11] Given his appreciation for Heraclitus and his concept of the enantiodromia,[12] Jung was adamant that all reality operates via polarities: Just as we would not know “hot” if we did not know “cold,” “tall,” if we did not know “short,” so we would not know the Good (aka Christ) if we did not know evil (aka Antichrist).

As “patterns of behavior,” archetypes have intent and generativity:[13] They want to generate certain behaviors, depending on the particular archetype. For example, the “mother” archetype has the intention of caring for, nurturing and “mothering” the child,[14] so it generates suitable behaviors that do this, e.g. cooking, feeding, washing, clothing, holding, loving etc. The negative pole of the “mother” archetype is the Terrible Mother who is negligent, unloving, unable (for one reason or another) to be present and care for the child.[15]

The “father” archetype has different intentions, like protecting, guiding, mediating the outer world and helping the child gain confidence and skills for dealing with life outside the family and home.[16] The negative pole here shows up all too often in our modern world,[17] as the “absent father:” the workaholic man who is hardly ever home, or divorced man who is no longer a presence in the lives of his children, or the milquetoast figure so weak and insecure that he can offer no confident model for his children.

The intention of the child archetype is to play, so as to explore and learn about the world by giving free rein to his/her curiosity, so this archetype generates investigating, touching, listening, watching, playing with others and moving out beyond the familiar landscape to discover the world. The negative of this archetype manifests as the sad case of the child forced to grow up before his/her time:[18] the child loaded with chores, or faced with the task of caring for a weak or neurotic mother,[19] the young boy who had to become the “man of the house” upon the death or desertion of the father, or the puer man who fails to grow up and assume the responsibilities that come along with adulthood.[20]

Jung defined “Christ” and “Antichrist” as “spirits,”[21] the positive pole being termed “Christ,” referring to that pattern of behavior that is good, kind, loving, forgiving, wise, redeeming, and the opposite being “Antichrist,” whose qualities are the opposite: evil, mean, hateful, unforgiving, foolish, condemning. Jung regarded Antichrist as Christ’s shadow:

“The Antichrist develops in legend as a perverse imitator of Christ’s life. He is a true antimimon pneuma, an imitiating spirit of evil who follows in Christ’s footsteps like a shadow following the body.”[22]

Just as we cannot obliterate our shadow in daylight, so the negative pole of the Christ/Antichrist archetype cannot be wished away, nor would we be wise to expect happy times during the manifestation of the Antichrist.

But, given the numinosity of the archetype, people are likely to be fascinated by the Antichrist.[23] Numinosity is a term Jung borrowed from Rudolf Otto,[24] who coined the term to refer to the charge, or powerful effect, that archetypes tend to have due to their connection with transpersonal energies in the collective unconscious.[25] Jung notes that

“… when looked at … from within the realm of the subjective psyche…. the archetype appears as a numinous factor, as an experience of fundamental significance. Whenever it clothes itself in suitable symbols… , it seizes hold of the individual in a startling way, creating a condition amounting almost to possession, the consequences of which may be incalculable.”[26]

Throughout the course of human history Antichrists have used this quality of the archetype to stir up the crowd, encourage “mass-mindedness”[27] (which Jung regarded as dangerous and dehumanizing), and sway their followers to commit atrocities in the name of tribe,[28] country[29] or God.[30]

In light of the assumption made by the audience member I mentioned above, who associated the term “Antichrist” with Biblical accounts, i.e. THE Antichrist mentioned in the Book of Revelations by St. John,[31] I should note that Jung spoke of both “the” Antichrist,[32] and “an” Antichrist.[33] That is, Jung recognized that the archetype is not limited to any particular time, place or religious context. Human history has witnessed the appearance of the archetype in both poles: Moses, Jesus, Allah, Buddha, Meher Baba (positive) and Herod, Nero, Robespierre,[34] Hitler, Stalin (negative). The key is how the archetype manifests. The Antichrists killed, terrorized, divided, spewed hatred, fear and confusion. The positive pole intends peace, unity, love, sharing and caring, while the negative intends war, division, hatred, greed and selfishness. The positive pole generates actions to bring people together, to foster feelings of safety, security and happiness. The negative manifests anxiety, division and feelings of insecurity and fear. Which brings us to the next section of this essay.

Antichrist in the Context of Our Time

How did Jung regard our time? As I noted in earlier essays,[35] Jung saw the 20th century as a transitional time between two astrological aeons. Jung is called the “father of the New Age”[36] for his pioneering work on this shift of the vernal equinox from the “sign of the Fishes” (Pisces) into the “sign of the water-bearer”[37] (Aquarius). Now as the 21st century advances, we are moving even more out of the aeon of Pisces into that of Aquarius. Jung made much of this change of eras and his writings mention this significant shift multiple times.[38] With reference to our focus on Antichrist, Jung noted that

“The astrological sign of Pisces consists of two fishes which were frequently regarded as moving in opposite directions. Traditionally, the reign of Christ corresponds to the first fish and ended with the first millennium, whereas the second fish coincides with the reign of Antichrist, now nearing its end with the entry of the vernal equinox into the sign of Aquarius.”[39]

Each aeon lasts about 2,000+ years,[40] and the Piscean age began around the time of Christ, hence the term “Christian era,” and, as Jung’s description indicates, it had two distinct phases, the positive, from the beginning of the “Common Era” (i.e. the old style A.D.) to  around the year 1000, and the negative, from c. 1001 to c. 2000. Jung believed that history for the last thousand years has shown repeated instances of Antichrist at work, e.g. challenges to the Christian Church in events like the Investiture Controversy,[41] the Reformation,[42] the anti-clerical actions in the French Revolution and the Enlightenment, and, more recently, the revelations of priestly abuse and the falling attendance in services at many denominations,[43] as well as secular manifestations in the rise of science,[44] materialism,[45] ideologies,[46] and technocracy.[47]

Jung knew that change is slow, and collective change is especially slow. The shift from one aeon to another, Jung felt, requires not years but centuries,[48] so we are likely to see more of Antichrist at work in our time and the future. What handiwork of Antichrist is showing up in our daily headlines? Let’s consider this question topically.

In the political realm, we hear of multiple assassinations[49] and civil war;[50] the rise of authoritarian regimes;[51] widespread concern and public protests about global migration[52] (now due to violence but soon to be from global warming, as multiple countries disappear under the sea);[53] incidents of terrorism in many countries;[54] the growth of political extremism, with the breakdown of the principle of compromise leading to “government gridlock;”[55] and the perversion of constitutional principles in the name of “homeland security.”[56]

The realm of economics is no less fraught, as we witness multiple protests against global capitalism: the “elites” grow richer while middle classes get more and more pressed financially, and well-paying jobs disappear;[57] economies become “financialized” as stock markets focus more on “taking” (using investment money to make more money) rather than “making” (using money for investment in factories, machinery, and infrastructure);[58] money becoming “hollowed out”[59] (fiduciary currencies with no inherent value “floating” against other currencies, especially the dollar) and “etherealized” (money operating mostly as photons in cyberspace, via credit cards, ATM and cell phone transactions).[60]

Societies have the imprint of Antichrist too, e.g. the spreading popularity of addictive technologies like cell phones and video games[61]–all quite successful in distracting the masses (something Jung would deplore);[62] the decline of important social skills like empathy and politeness;[63] the encouragement from political leaders of racism, sexism, chauvinism and nativism,[64] leading to riots and violent confrontations[65]–all of these fostering division, “us/them” thinking, hatred and lack of compassion.

Jung decried the “Antichristian”[66] nature of our modern culture, with its prevalence of “-isms,”[67] e.g. rationalism, intellectualism, “materialistic atheism,”[68] and “utopian chimeras.”[69] He warned us that

“the less he [i.e. Antichrist] is recognized the more dangerous he is. Who would suspect him under those high-sounding names of his, such as public welfare, lifelong security, peace among the nations, etc.? He hides under idealisms, under -isms in general, and of these the most pernicious is doctrinairism, that most unspiritual of all the spirit’s manifestations.”[70]

Scientism is part and parcel of this cultural orientation, with its reductionism, objectivism, positivism, and materialism.[71] But, as Jung noted, very few people recognize the imprint of Antichrist in these features of modern culture.

The influence of Antichrist is more obvious in the spiritual realm, in the decline of mainstream “creeds,”[72] and the rise of fundamentalist churches (Antichristian in their self-righteous judgmentalism and literalism);[73] the phenomenon of cults (e.g. Scientology);[74] the strife within religions, e.g. the Sunni-Shi’ite conflict in Islam;[75] the wars between religions, e.g. the Buddhist genocide against the Muslim Rohingya;[76] and the growing numbers of people falling into substance abuse, reflecting the personal loss of meaning and purpose in life and a misdirection of the search for Spirit.[77] Jung decried the  “… loss of spiritual authority which [he felt]… is due to the inability of the Churches to come to terms adequately with the scientific spirit.”[78] Why this inability? Jung suggested that it is due to the fact that “Science seeks the truth because it feels it does not possess it. The church possesses the truth and therefore does not seek it.”[79]

Common to all these features is their effect: an Antichrist divides, sows discord and hatred, pulls the masses down to the lowest common level of consciousness, foments wars and brings to power political figures who are unconscious, power-hungry, and depraved. We are witnessing the emergence, on many fronts, of the “dark ‘son of chaos,’ the evil-doer,”[80] as Jung called the Antichrist. Ours is a “tragic time,” a time when our world is “split” and the “God-image” has been “destroyed.”[81] Jung felt this would lead to “the annulment of the human personality[82] as “rationalistic movements… delegate the freedom of the personality to the masses and thereby extinguish it.”[83] Jung warns us that

“We are far better protected against failing crops, inundations, epidemics, and invasions from the Turk than we are against our own deplorable spiritual inferiority, which seems to have little resistance to psychic epidemics.”[84]

Given his disdain for depersonalizing technologies, Jung would view the current addictive craze for cell phones and video games as a “psychic epidemic.”

Living in the 20th century, with a good grasp of history, Jung identified many historical figures who were at some point labeled as Antichrists, e.g. Herod (who killed all the male babies born around the time of Jesus’ birth, so as to fend off the possibility of being displaced as King of the Jews),[85] Nero (who had Christians hung on crosses and set on fire to light the streets of Rome),[86] Mohammed (regarded as Antichrist by the Christians in the Middle East as Islam spread over eastern and southern parts of the Roman Empire),[87] Joan of Arc (regarded by the English army as the “handmaid of Satan”),[88] Luther (regarded as Antichrist by the Roman Catholic Church),[89] the French revolutionaries (also given the “Antichrist” label by the Catholic church for their insistence on laïcité, the secularization of French culture).[90] In his own day, Jung felt both Hitler and Stalin were Antichrists.[91]

As I pointed out to my questioner at the conference I attended recently, the archetype “Antichrist” is not limited to the visions of an early Christian writer. If “Antichrist” is someone who foments division, encourages violence, abuses people, lies, creates chaos, and contravenes norms of decency, we can accurately say that Donald Trump, Vladimir Putin, Viktor Orban, Recip Erdogan, and Bashir al-Assad, as well as many media figures who spread “fake news” and stir up discontent are all manifesting the features of the Antichrist archetype. That these people have come to power or prominence reflects how the archetype has come to the fore in these last years of the Piscean aeon. Ours, in short, is not an easy time to be alive, but Jung offers good advice on how to cope.

Jung’s Suggestions on How to Cope

First, we must understand what we are dealing with. Living, as we are, in the second half of the Piscean aeon, the era under the rule of Antichrist, we are living under the sway of the negative pole of a powerful archetype. The intention of this pole is to sow confusion, anxiety, division, hatred, discord and restlessness, and, acting on this intention, we see the Antichrists in our world lying, generating wars and conflicts, challenging long-standing alliances, and breaking customs and norms.

More disturbing is how, thanks to its numinosity, the Antichrist fascinates.[92] Exposés of the doings in the Oval Office,[93] reports of Trump’s latest gaffes,[94] accounts of the plots of Putin[95]–these sorts of things sell papers, command headlines in news feeds, and send books to the top of the bestseller lists. Despite the negativity and horror, we follow along, titillated by the gossip, entertained by the rumors, and appalled by “fake news.” Jung would call our attention to the dangerous, seductive quality that lies in the numinosity of the archetype. We must be conscious, lest we succumb to this seduction and fail to apply our critical faculties as we engage daily realities.

Jung was explicit that in these last years of the Piscean era, those of us who are conscious “ought to realize the facts as they are.”[96] We “must come to terms drastically with the facts as they are, with the absolute opposition that is not only tearing the world asunder politically but has planted a schism in the human heart.”[97] This “schism” has shown up in places like Charlottesville, Virginia, site of the 2017 white supremacist rally;[98] at border entry points, where children were torn from their parents who were seeking asylum;[99] and when the American President questioned the value of the NATO alliance.[100] This last calls to mind the prediction that “Satan shall be loosed out of his prison, and shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four corners of the earth,…”.[101] We can only hope that other leaders of the Western alliance are wise to the Antichrist archetype.

Another way Jung suggests we cope in this stressful time is by staying grounded, rooted, practical, and resist “spacing out.” Jung reminds us that we must avoid “a kind of rootless consciousness…which succumbs helplessly to all manner of suggestions and, in practice, is susceptible to psychic epidemics.”[102] Our susceptibility to such epidemics is especially true, given how

“…in the threatening situation of the world today, when people are beginning to see that everything is at stake, the projection-creating fantasy soars beyond the realm of earthly organizations and powers into the heavens,…”[103]

The reference to “powers into the heavens” calls to mind technocrats’ dreams of space flights for the public and civilian trips to space stations and even settling on Mars.[104] To Jung, this is a form of escapism, and certainly no way to address the threats of the Antichrist.

Putting a premium as he did on the individual,[105] Jung urges us to stay away from mobs, avoid mass gatherings, and resist “group think” and “mass-mindedness.”[106] We need to be wise to the Antichrist’s tendency to deceive and its lust for power. Jung offers a caution when he reminds us that

“… the devil still maintains a position of considerable power and holds all sublunary creatures under his sway. This situation can only be described as critical;…Evil is by no means fettered, even though its days are numbered….”[107]

By “sublunary creatures” Jung refers to all of us, and most of all, to those who fancy themselves immune to the blanishments of power, prestige and persona stuff. Not for nothing was the Antichrist called the “prince of this world,”[108] and in its various guises these days it holds out numerous temptations.

How to counter the lies and temptations? Jung reminds us of the “spirit of truth who has taken up his abode in man.”[109] We have within the ability to discern truth from falsehood, true facts from “fake news,” the reliable report from disinformation. We must question authority by internalizing the locus of authority within ourselves, and honing our ability to differentiate and discern what is really going on.[110] Most of all, we must recognize the Antichrist for what it is: dangerous, and, as Jung warns us, “the less he is recognized the more dangerous he is.”[111]

To counter the divisiveness of Antichrist, “we need to find our way back to the original, living spirit which,… is also a mediator and uniter of opposites,…”.[112] Just as we have within the “spirit of truth,” so we also have an inner mediator and uniter, the capacity to hold the tension of opposites and unite them. At this time when Antichrist is “tearing the world asunder politically”[113] and socially, we can commit to being a force for unification and reconciliation.

This implies that we recognize and draw upon the strength of the positive pole of the archetype. As much as the Antichrist would destroy, we can build; as much as it would lie, we can speak the truth; as much as it would project the shadow (by labeling people and countries as evil), we can choose to internalize the shadow (by looking within and facing our own inner failings).

Finally, no matter how dark this transition time becomes, Jung would have us remember the “one certainty” that got him through the terrible days of World War II, when he and his family lived daily with the fear of invasion by the Nazis. In a 1940 letter to one of his American friends, Mary Mellon, Jung wrote:

“I think the night has descended upon Europe. Heaven knows if and when and under what conditions we shall meet again. There is only one certainty–nothing can put out the light within.”[114]

Kinesiology shows us that the positive is always stronger than the negative,[115] so we can be sure that peace, love and unity will overcome war, hate and division eventually. Like Jung in 1940, we don’t know how and when the “reign of the Antichrist”[116] will end, but as we move through the rough times ahead, we can allow Jung’s certainty of the lasting light within to comfort us.


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[1] Collected Works 9i ¶266-267. Hereafter Collected Works will be abbreviated CW.

[2] CW 11 ¶178.

[3] Ibid., ¶693.

[4] “Letter to Father Victor White,” 10 April 1954; Letters, II, 166, note 10.

[5] CW 11 ¶778.

[6] “Letter to Mary Mellon,” 19 June 1940; Letters, I, 284.

[7] Revelation, especially chapter 20.

[8] “Jung and the Archetype of the Apocalypse.”

[9] CW 3 ¶565.

[10] Stevens (2003), 117,133,189 & 265-6.

[11] CW 9i ¶157.

[12] Heraclitus was Jung’s favorite ancient author; Edinger (1999), 32.

[13] Stevens (2003), 119.

[14] CW 9i ¶158.

[15] Ibid.

[16] Stevens (2003), 131-2.

[17] Ibid., 124, 130-1,148 & 234.

[18] CW 17 ¶288.

[19] Ibid., ¶154.

[20] CW 5 ¶553.

[21] CW 9ii ¶s 68,75,141; CW 11 ¶ 654.

[22] CW 9ii ¶75.

[23] CW 4 ¶744; CW 18 ¶589.

[24] Otto (1958), 6.

[25] Jung (1964), 87.

[26] CW 18 ¶1229.

[27] CW 10 ¶719.

[28] Beech (2018).

[29] E.g. both Germany and Japan had nationalistic arguments for their aggression that caused World War II.

[30] E.g. the Crusades, in which Christians were called by Pope Urban to fight the “infidels.” Brinton et. al. (1960), I, 351-2.

[31] Rev. 12ff.

[32] Cf. CW 5 ¶565; CW 9ii, p. ix & ¶s 69,75-79,114,116,130,149,156,159,168,170; CW 11 ¶s 252, 654, 694, 697, 725, 743; CW 14 ¶s 148, 483.

[33] CW 11 ¶693.

[34] Robespierre was a leader of the “Reign of Terror” during the French Revolution and was responsible for many murders; Brinton et al. (1960), II, 114-116.

[35] Cf. “Preparing for the Great Attunement,” “Historical Perspective on Our Preparing for the Great Attunement,” “Jung’s ‘Platonic Month’ and the Age of Aquarius,” and “Life at the End of an Aeon.”

[36] Boynton (2004), 8.

[37] “Letter to Father Victor White,” 10 April 1954; Letters, II, 166, note 10.

[38] Cf. CW 9i ¶551; CW 11 ¶s 216, 359, 72205, 733, 743.

[39] “Letter to Father Victor White,” 10 April 1954; Letters, II, 166, note 10.

[40] CW 9ii, ¶149, note 84. Jung struggled to determine an exact date and he assumed the length of a Platonic month as 2,143 years, but he could not determine which star to use to begin the calculations.

[41] The Investiture Conflict pitted the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV against Pope Gregory VII over the issue of who–Pope or Emperor–had the right to choose bishops. This was the first of many church-state conflicts which the church initially won (Henry was forced to do penance), but eventually lost, e.g. the French king Philip IV intervened in the Papal election in 1303 and moved the Papacy to Avignon in 1305; Brinton et. al. (1960), I, 271, 282.

[42] The various reformers–Calvin, Knox, Munster, and especially Luther were labeled “Antichrist” by the Catholic Church; CW 9 ¶s 151, 159.

[43] Urian (2018).

[44] CW 9ii ¶68.

[45] Ibid. ¶170.

[46] CW 11 ¶778.

[47] Jung was not a fan of technology; cf. CW 18 ¶1405, and his “Letter to Dorothy Thompson,” 23 September 1949; Letters, I, 536-7.

[48] CW 10 ¶160.

[49] Cf. Specia (2018), Barry (2018a), Barry (2018b), Wolgelenter & Barry (2018), Beech & Bergman (2018).

[50] E.g. in Syria and Yemen.

[51] E.g. in Hungary, Poland and Turkey.

[52] E.g. refugees fleeing violence in Africa, the Middle East and Latin America entering Europe and the United States.

[53] E.g. Kiribati and Bangladesh; most of the state of Florida will also disappear.

[54] E.g. the United Kingdom, France, Germany and the United States.

[55] Griffin (2015), 6.

[56] Sofaer (2007).

[57] Stebbins & Sauter (2016).

[58] For a discussion of the rise of “financialization,” see Foroohar (2016), 29-61.

[59] CW 18 ¶1320.

[60] Sweden has gone so far as to eliminate tangible currency for most transactions; see Henley (2016).

[61] Turkle (2015), 32,37-8,113,126,215-6.

[62] CW 9i ¶226.

[63] Twenge (2009), 22,86,196,234,288-9.

[64] E.g. Trump; cf. Eichengreen (2018) and Kuttner (2018) on politicians encouraging these themes.

[65] E.g. the confrontation in Charlottesville, Virginia, in 2017 during the white supremacist march.

[66] “Letter to H. Irminger,” 24 September 1944; Letters, I, 347-8.

[67] CW 9ii ¶141.

[68] Ibid. ¶170.

[69] Ibid.

[70] Ibid., ¶141.

[71] Tart (2009), 24-5,192-5,241-2.

[72] This is Jung’s term for organized religions, for which he had little use; cf. CW 11 ¶s10 & 752; and CW 10 ¶s507 & 512.

[73] Cf. Matt. 7:1 and II Cor. 3:6.

[74] Goodstein (2010).

[75] Chitwood (2017).

[76] This is described in Beech (2018).

[77] “Letter to William G. Wilson,” 30 January 1961; Letters, II, 624.

[78]  “Letter to H. Irminger,” 24 September 1944; Letters, I, 347-8.

[79] Ibid.

[80] CW 11 ¶178.

[81] CW 9ii ¶170.

[82] Ibid.

[83] Ibid.

[84] CW 11 ¶778.

[85] CW 18 ¶1744.

[86] CW 9ii ¶159.

[87] Ibid.

[88] Harrison (2014), 167.

[89] CW 9ii ¶151.

[90] Piser (2018).

[91] CW 18 ¶s639 & 1327; CW 10 ¶517.

[92] CW 4 ¶744.

[93] E.g. Wolf (2018).

[94] Homans (2016).

[95] Matthews (2018).

[96] CW 9ii ¶141.

[97] Ibid.

[98] Gomez (2018).

[99] Timmons (2018).

[100] Davis (2018).

[101] Rev. 20:7.

[102] CW 9i ¶s266-7.

[103] CW 10 ¶610.

[104] Solon (2018).

[105] CW 10 ¶586.

[106] Ibid. ¶719.

[107] CW 11 ¶697.

[108] Ibid.

[109] Ibid.

[110] CW 6 ¶705.

[111] CW 9ii ¶141.

[112] Ibid.

[113] Ibid.

[114] “Letter to Mary Mellon,” 19 June 1940; Letters, I, 284.

[115] Hawkins (2002), 1-7 & 67-74.

[116] CW 11 ¶725.